USA: Menya amatora atandatu yabayemwo induru, amwe akavamwo intambara

Mu matora ya 2016, Donald Trump, ico gihe yari mu bahiganwa, yaranse kwiyemeza ko yari kwemera ivyari kuva mu matora.

N’ubu kandi, mu 2020, induru yama avuza mu kurwanya ivyo gukoresha uburyo bwa posita mu matora yatumye avuga ko adashobora kwemera ko yotsindwa kuko avuga ko ubu buryo buzotuma haba ubusuma bw’amajwi. Yaranse kandi no kwiyemeza ko azokwemera ibizoba muri aya matora ya 2020.

Ibi bitera impungenge ko impari zishingiye kuri ano matora zishobora gutuma abantu bata icizere bafitiye demokarasi ya Amerika.

Hagati aho, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zifise kahise karekare mu bijanye n’impari zishingiye ku matora. Kiretse izadutse mu matora amwe gusa, izi mpari zose nta kibazo kinini zateye kuri demokarasi ya Amerika.

Ukuri kuriho ni uko impari zadutse ku matora yo mu 1860 – zatumye haduka intambara hagati mu gihugu – zavuye ku matora yatunganijwe mu bihe bidasanzwe.

Impari zitabuza ihanahana ry’ubutegetsi mu mahoro

Amatora hafi yose yabayemwo ibibazo nta ngorane yatera zatuma ubutegetsi butizigirwa.

Ukwizigirwa kw’ubutegetsi ni kimwe mu bintu nyamukuru muri demokarasi.

Iyo hari ubutegetsi bwemewe, n’ingingo z’agahotoro ziremerwa kuko abanyagihugu baba bazi ko leta ifise uburenganzira bwo kuzishira mu ngiro. Nk’akarorero, umunyagihugu afise kuba yanka amakori kanaka, ariko akemera ko ariko amategeko abitegekanya.

Ariko iyo hari ubutegetsi butemewe, aho usanga akenshi abanyagihugu batabwiyumvamwo, uburuhiro buratembagara kubera havamwo hakaduka abasaba impunduka.

Muri demokarasi, amatora atuma haba ubutegetsi bwemewe kuko abanyagihugu baba bagize uruhara mu gutora indongozi.

Muri kahise, amatora yavuyemwo induru nta bibazo vyinshi yateje kw’itunganywa ry’intwaro kuko hariho amategeko yisungwa mu gutorera umuti impari nk’izi kandi yarakurikijwe.

N’aho abanyapolitike co kimwe n’abanyagihugu barakajwe n’akarenganyo ko kubona batsinzwe, baremeye ko batsinzwe.

Amatora yabayemwo induru ibintu bikabandanya neza

Mu 1800, Thomas Jefferson na Aaron Burr baronse amajwi angana mu ntumwa z’itora (Collège Eléctoral/ Electoral College). Kubera rero hari habuze uwusumvya uwundi, Inama nshingamateka yaciye yiyambaza ibwirizwashingiro ica itumako inama idasanzwe kugira ngo itature abahiganwa biciye mu matora. Amatora yagiye kurangira Jefferson arushije mugenziwe amajwi 36 aba aratsinze, kandi abanyagihugu bashize aho intahe ishize.

Insiguro y’isanamu,

Thomas Jefferson (i bubamfu) na Aaron Burr barahanganye bikomeye mu matora ya mbere yabayemwo impari muri Amerika

Mu 1824, Andrew Jackson yaratsinze mu matora y’abanyagihugu (vote populaire) maze atsinda John Quincy Adams hamwe n’abandi bakandida babiri, ariko ntiyaronka igitigiri gikwiye c’Intumwa zitora. N’aho nyene kandi, Inama nshingamateka, yisunze ibwirizwashingiro, yaciye ikorana ihitamwo Adams maze aba atsinze Jackson.

Mu 1876, amatora hagati ya Rutherford B. Hayes na Samuel Tilden yarabayemwo induru kubera amaleta atari make yo mu bumanuko yananiwe no kwerekana neza uwatsinze. Iki kibazo cagiye gukemurwa habaye ibiganiro vyahagarariwe n’umurwi ujejwe amatora washizweho n’Inama nshingamateka. Ico gihe, Hayes niwe yahiswemwo ngo abe umukuru w’igihugu, aya maleta nayo agira ivyo yemererwa vyatumye ashobora kurangiza igikorwa co kwisanasana inyuma ya ya ntambara ya Amerika.

Mu 1960, amatora hagati y’umu Democrate John F. Kennedy n’umu Repubulika Richard Nixon yaranzwemwo impari aho bagirizanije ubusuma, mbere n’abanywanyi ba Nixon bashobora gutera igitsure amaleta atari make basubiramwo guharura amajwi. Impera n’imperuka, Nixon yahavuye apfa kwemera ingingo kugira ngo igihugu ntikigwe mu ntambara kandi cari muri ya ntambara y’ukwikekana (Guerre Froide/Cold War) hagati ya Amerika na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti (URSS).

Ubu bwa vuba mu 2000, umu Repubulika George W. Bush n’umu Democrate Al Gore barinjiye mu mpari zikomeye mu matora ya Florida. Sentare nkuru y’igihugu yahagaritse isubiramwo ryo guharura amajwi hanyuma Gore avamwo aremera ku mugaragaro ko yatsinzwe, maze yemera ko Bush yatsinze ariko avuze ati, “n’aho ntemeranya na gato na Sentare nkuru ku ngingo yayo, ndayemeye”.

Buri gihe, umugambwe watsinzwe ntiwigera ushima ivyavuye mu matora. Ariko buri gihe, uwatsinzwe yaremera aho amategeko yashira, kandi nivyo vyatumye integuro y’intwaro ya demokarasi ya Amerika ishinga imizi.

Amatora yateje intambara

Amatora ya 1860 vyari ibindi bintu.

Abraham Lincoln amaze gutsinda abandi batatu bahiganwa nawe, amaleta yo mu bumanuko yaciye yanka kwemera ivyari bivuye mu matora. Ico gihe aya maleta yafata ko cazira kikaziririzwa ko hagira umukuru w’igihugu arwanya ubucakara yoshobora gutorwa. Ibi vyatumye yiyamiriza ivyari bivuye muri ayo matora.

Kugira ngo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika igumane ubumwe bwayo n’igihugu kimwe, vyabaye ngombwa ko haseseka amaraso menshi cane muri ya ntambara ya Amerika (American Civil War). Induru zaturutse kuri aya matora, kubera ukutumvikana ku mikorere hagati y’Uburaruko n’Ubumanuko, zahitanye ubuzima bw’Abanyamerika 600.000.

Insiguro y’isanamu,

Igihe amaleta yo mu bumanuko yiyamiriza itorwa rya Abraham Lincoln, igihugu caciye cinjira mu ntambara

Hari itandukaniro hagati y’ivyabaye mu 1860 ku ruhande rumwe vyatumye igihugu kigwa mu manga, n’ivyagiye biba mu yandi matora maze ubuzima bukabandanya ata ngorane.

Mu bisanzwe, mu bihe vyose abanyagihugu bamye biciyemwo ibice bishingiye kuri politike kandi mu matora wasanga ibiharuro biba vyegeranye cane.

Icatumye ivyabaye mu 1860 bifata iyindi ntumbero, ni uko igihugu cari cigabuyemwo hisunzwe ikibazo c’ubucakara, aho wasanga intara z’uburaruko zifise uko zumva ikibazo, zigashaka ko kirangira ababukorerwa, ni ukuvuga abirabure baronka ubwigenge.

Ku rundi ruhande, intara zo mu umanuko nazo zari zifise iyindi ntumbero itandukanye, zigashaka kubandanya ubucakara ukuri kwamye. Iki rero caratumye amaleta yo muri iki gice ca Amerika y’Ubumanuko yishira hamwe ashinga iciswe Confederacy/États confédérés, akarwanya ubutegetsi bwa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Kugendera ku mategeko

Akahise karatwereka ko n’aho Trump canke Biden bokwiyamiriza amatora, nta nkurikizi zotuma ibara rigwa.

Ibwirizwashingiro riratomora neza ingene vyogenda: ubwa mbere, umuperezida ntashobora gutangaza ko amatora yabaye impfagusa. Ubwa kabiri, amaleta yo nyene ubwayo ahagararira amatora niyo ategerezwa gukora amatohoza ku tunenge twokwibonekeza mu matora. Iki kintu gisa n’uko ataco cohindura ku vyoba vyatangajwe kuko ubusuma bw’amatora ari ikintu kidakunze kwibonekeza na gato.

Intambwe igira kabiri kwoba ukwitabaza Sentare nkuru y’iguhugu canke kwitwarira amaleta kanaka. Kugira ngo ushobore guhagarika ivyavuye mu matora muri leta kanaka, hategerezwa kwerekanwa ivyemezo nyavyo vy’utwo tunenge canke ubwo busuma.

Insiguro y’isanamu,

Sentare nkuru y’igihugu niyo yari ifise ijambo rya nyuma mu gutorera inyishu impari ziturutse ku matora

Mu gihe ibi vyose vyosendwa gushika ku munsi w’iyimikwa, umukuru w’igihugu yatowe arashikirizwa amabanga icese, kandi ivyo kumwitwarira ntaco vyoba bikivuze kuko amategeko amuha ububasha bwose bwo kuba umukuru w’igihugu, kandi ntashobora kubogozwa, kiretse ari nka hamwe akoze amakosa yotuma abogozwa.

N’aho ibizova muri ano matora ya 2020 bifise guhagarika imitima abanyamerika benshi, nta nkeka ko amategeko ariyo azokora. Nta nguvu zikomeye zishingiye ku mateka, ku mibereho canke ku ntara zatumye ibintu biyangara mu 1860 ziriho muri kino gihe.

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